This link is for all of the items completed in class for our Imperialism Unit.
FOR THE EXAM – Document analysis will require three things.
- Take annotated notes on the document (highlight main points, write notes in the margins)
- Short summary of the overall point of the document (roughly 1-2 paragraphs)
- Explanation of how the document(s) relate to the overall discussion of Imperialism and US History.
The shorter version (The Emilio Aguinaldo and Colored Citizen documents) is worth 30 points. The more difficult version (Josiah Strong) is worth 30 plus 20 points.
Additional Class Notes
Imperialism or Not Imperialism
The Filipino leaders who fought for independence from Spain originally believed that the U.S. would support their cause. They believed this because the American Revolution inspired their owned revolution. They thus hoped that the U.S. would support them because they intended to model their constitution after the U.S. constitution.
Those for imperialism…
- Josiah Strong: viewed Filipinos as savage and incapable of self-government. He differentiates between the concepts of independence and freedom: real freedom, he argues, is only possible under law, and Anglo-Saxon freedom required intervening upon national independence movements of less capable people and imposing Anglo-Saxon governance. (Because the Filipino independence movement was conducted by an inferior race of peoples, expansionists were convinced that Americans had to step in and show them how to govern themselves.)
- Also states that the Anglo-Saxon race is an efficient “producer” race which, for the good of humankind, needs to help maximize the utilization of natural resources. It was therefore America’s duty to take custody of natural amenities of the Philippines in order to ensure they fulfill their maximum economic potential. (See Rudyard Kipling’s poem “White Man’s Burden”)
- The Philippines was hoped by Americans to become America’s Hong Kong, and a place where the U.S. could leverage for concessions and spheres of influence in China. In addition, the Philippines would serve as a strategic base for the navy.
- Albert Beveridge (IN): Reformist senator who essay “American Destiny” (1900), delineates the reasons for American expansionism.
- The divine mandate of spreading higher culture to the lesser-cultures peoples of the Philippines.
- Viewed the Philippines as more than just a land in need of missionary work, however. Saw the Philippines as a stepping stone to China, “and just beyond the Philippines are China’s illimitable markets.”
- To show how the Philippines is unfit for an autonomous government, Beveridge points to their history of Spanish rule, “They know nothing of practical government except as they have witnessed weak, corrupt, cruel, and capricious rule of Spain.” (Unfortunately, the cost of “saving” the Filipinos, meant that 200,000 (1/5 population) would be killed)
5 Theodore Roosevelt’s interpretation of expansion does not involve commitment to governing the people there, but rather just being sure that their nations are stable and using police powers to protect American investments. (See Roosevelt Corollary).
- Carl Schurz: Influential Anti-Imperialist League spokesperson, argued that the use of militarism required for colonialism undermined representative government and equality under the law.
- Anti-Imperialist League also argued that an empire is incompatible with a democratic republic. They point out that “government derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.”
- Black leaders saw the Filipinos as a mirror of their own plight for freedom. Segregation and racism became issues as blacks went to fight for a country in which they were not treated as equals.
- Americans began to wonder the logic of slaughter in the name of freedom. Did it greatly undermine humanitarian justifications of the war?
- Anglo-Saxon supremacist John W. Burgess opposed colonialism because it incorporated “inferior” people with the American system. Roosevelt and Alfred Thayer Mahan supported naval bases there, but had reservations about annexing large populations of alien people.
- Edward Atkinson disputed the benefits of imperialism, claiming the cost of administering military control over the Philippines at $75,000 a day, outweighing any profit that could be extracted from trade. Based on these arguments, it is clear that the expenses of running an empire would always outweigh the profits.